The European Business Council for Africa

Vaste pays d’Afrique centrale situé à cheval entre le Sahara et l’Afrique tropicale, le Tchad s’étend sur trois grandes zones climatiques distinctes du Sud au Nord. Cette géographie est caractéristique de sa vulnérabilité climatique

à laquelle s’ajoute une précarité des conditions socioéconomiques, conséquences des décennies de troubles socio-politiques qu’a connus le Tchad. Selon le PNUD, il a un Indice de Développement Humain (IDH) de 0.401 et est classé 187e sur 189 pays (PNUD 2019).

La combinaison de ces facteurs géographiques (aléas) et sociopolitiques ont induit une situation de pauvreté qui s’observe par un manque criant des services sociaux de base. La pauvreté a un indice de 46.7% avec des disparités énormes entre les zones urbaines (20.9%) et rurales (52.5%) (ECOSIT-3). La situation de l’habitat au Tchad est lamentable. On y rencontre un habitat dont 82.4% est constitué des maisons ou les murs sont en matériaux traditionnels ou non-durable (57.7% en banco et 24.7% en pailles/natte) (EDS 2015). Le déficit national de logement était estimé entre 2009 et 2016 à plus de 357 000 unités alors que le besoin annuel en 2009 était estimé à 21 000 unités d’habitation par an (à peine 8,6 % uniquement par le secteur informel) et n’a cessé d’accroitre avec l’urbanisation dont le taux était passé à plus de 30%. Le secteur du logement est en Afrique largement dominé par l’informel et pour cause le coût très élevé du logement formel pour un ménage moyen. Le secteur informel se trouve être la solution.

Blueprint, experiences and outcomes 

East Asia’s successful experience in accelerating the process of industrial development with SEZs paved way for the use of SEZs as policy instruments in Africa. In southern Africa, Zambia and South Africa instituted SEZs in legal and institutional frameworks in the 2000s as mechanisms for catalysing industrialization and employment creation through foreign and domestic investments.

Are SEZs white elephants, or justified investments?

The notion of a SEZ refers to a geographically designated area where business rules and regulations are more liberal than in the rest of the country, to attract investment and spur economic growth.

Despite the clear evidence on the poor performance of SEZs in Africa, their development has continued to expand in both South Africa and Zambia. This begs the following question: are SEZs just white elephants, or justified investments whose potential can still be unlocked?

The Director-General’s latest annual overview of trade-related developments shows a marked slowdown in the number of trade-restrictive and trade-facilitating measures adopted by WTO members related to goods trade over the past year. The report, presented at a 11 December meeting of the WTO’s Trade Policy Review Body (TPRB), notes the decrease observed in regular measures between mid-October 2019 and mid-October 2020 was mainly the result of the sharp decline in overall global trade since the COVID-19 outbreak. The document at the same time provides information about the numerous trade-facilitating and support measures introduced by WTO economies in response to the economic downturn caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in order to ensure a solid economic recovery.

This background note outlines the purpose and objectives of the special event that will be organised in Yangon on Tuesday 4 March 2014 at the initiative of Italy to raise awareness of the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises among the domestic and foreign business community, as well as local stakeholders. It is a part of a one-day conference Promoting Responsible Investment in Myanmar: Domestic and International Responsesorganised in co-operation with the Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry (UMFCCI) on the occasion of the launch of the Investment Policy Review of Myanmar.

The High-Level Group Report on Climate is the combination of work undertaken during 2020 by the founding partners of the Africa Europe Foundation and under the strategic guidance of the “High-Level Group of Personalities on Africa-Europe relations”.
The report outlines how an innovative “Africa Europe Climate Alliance” based on mutual learning and joint interest can be the foundation for relaunching the Africa-Europe partnership in 2021. The report's strategic areas of action focus on the priority domains of sustainable energy and agriculture, at the nexus of climate and development.

This report presents three scenarios on the impact of COVID-19 in Africa using economic growth forecasts, mortality and efforts to ameliorate impact through social grants. Likely effects are examined on per capita income, poverty and the attainment of selected Sustainable Development Goals targets. Africa’s development trajectory has suffered a severe setback, with extreme poverty rising in all the scenarios. The pandemic threatens Africa in several ways, and the report provides policy recommendations to reduce vulnerability and strengthen resilience.

Promoting dialogue and co-ordination, building a coherent and shared understanding of the food and nutrition situation, and nurturing decision-making: these objectives have been at the heart of the Food Crisis Prevention Network’s (RPCA) mission for over 35 years. Created in 1984, the RPCA is an international network for co-operation and co-ordination under the political leadership of the Commissions of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the WestAfrican Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA). Co-ordinated jointly by the Permanent Inter-State Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) and the Sahel and West Africa Club Secretariat (SWAC/OECD), the RPCA brings together more than 100 key stakeholders: representatives of Sahelian and West African countries, regional organisations, regional and international information systems, bilateral and multilateral co-operation agencies, humanitarian agencies and international NGOs, agricultural professional organisations, civil society and the private sector.

Plus de cinq ans après son lancement en 2014, le Projet d’appui aux infrastructures agricoles dans la Vallée de l’Ouémé (PAIA–VO), dans le sud-est du Bénin, contribue à l’accroissement durable de la productivité et des productions végétales par la promotion des filières porteuses, indique un rapport de la Banque africaine de développement rendu public le 2 novembre dernier.

Le projet, qui répond à la stratégie de la Banque visant à réduire la pauvreté et à améliorer la sécurité alimentaire au Bénin, a été financé à hauteur de 67,19 millions de dollars américains par l’institution. Ce financement comprend un prêt d’un montant équivalant à 59,20 millions de dollars et un don d’un montant équivalant à 794 000 dollars du Fonds africain de développement (FAD) ainsi qu’un don de 7,2 millions de dollars issu du Fonds pour l’environnement mondial (FEM).

La mise en œuvre du projet a déjà permis la réalisation de 200 kilomètres de linéaire de pistes, ainsi que trois kilomètres et demi de linéaire de digues-pistes, la construction de quatre marchés modernisés et 46 magasins de stockage, l’aménagement de 110 hectares de superficies de planches surélevées, et un emblavement de 1070 hectares. Par ailleurs, le PAIA–VO a apporté son soutien à 155 femmes maraîchères, permis l’encadrement de 5302 agriculteurs et formé 139 comités. Il a aussi fourni à tous les bénéficiaires 407 tonnes de semences.

Each year, the Annual Development Effectiveness Review (ADER) assesses Africa’s development and the contribution that the African Development Bank (Bank) has made. The ADER is vital to the Bank’s reflection on its achievements and areas where it can improve its performance. This reflection is all the more vital this year, as the Bank reorients its operations to respond to the Covid-19 pandemic. The crisis requires us to ensure we use our resources and expertise more effectively than ever.

The ADER assesses progress against the Bank’s Results Measurement Framework (RMF) for 2016–2025. It monitors the contribution of our activities to our High 5s — Light up and Power Africa, Feed Africa, Industrialise Africa, Integrate Africa,and Improve the Quality of Life for the People of Africa — to our cross-cutting priorities, and to our long-term goals of promoting inclusive growth and green growth. The ADER also measures the progress we have made on strengthening our portfolio and reforming our internal systems and processes, to position us to deliver better development results for Africa.

Situation Overview

Increasing vulnerabilities and worsening humanitarian needs due to lockdowns have devastated livelihoods. UNOCHA’s humanitarian response plans are showing a higher number of people in need (10% higher than this time last year, which equates to 48.9 million in East Africa, 45 million in Southern Africa, and 44.7 million in West Africa).

Prolonged school closures have negatively affected children’s learning and led to higher teenage pregnancy rates. According to a recent World Vision study, as many as 1 million girls may be blocked from returning to school across sub-Saharan Africa.

Reduced funding commitments and COVID-19 lockdowns have increased vulnerabilities amongst forced migration populations (i.e. internally displaced persons and refugees) and migrant workers across east, west, and southern regions. In East Africa, for example, the World Food Programme has reduced food rations for refugees.

Reports indicate that gender-based violence and mental health challenges are also increasing due to lockdowns and lost livelihoods.